HOW IT WORKS
Green Waste Management Value Chain in Nigeria and Ghana
One of the most visible catastrophic problems caused by our unbridled production and consumption is the growing quantities of Solid Waste (SW) generations. Around the world, humans are creating 1.3 billion tons of solid waste annually, which is expected to rise to 2.2 billion tons by 2025.
Waste management has emerged as the primary concern in Africa due to its impact on economic development, the environment, and human health. Ineffective management of solid waste damages ecosystems, causes loss of biodiversity, pollution of the water, soil, and air as well as detrimental economic and social effects.
Households, public offices, health care facilities, industries, retailers. They are the principal sources of solid waste. They generate waste, which is then picked up by collectors. They are responsible for waste containerisation, the provision, and use of proper waste receptacles or bins appropriate for the volume being generated from respective/designated tenements, institutions, and industrial or commercial premises.
They are subdivided into public, private (formal and informal), and domestic private waste collectors and are responsible for collecting and disposing of solid waste (medical; e-waste, etc). They collect waste from various sources and transport it to a designated facility for processing (compressing) or disposal.
Aggregators receive recyclables collected and recovered by collectors and deliver them to pre-processors/processors. Aggregation requires ample space for the sorting and storage of recyclables. For example, Polyethylene terephthalate, and PET vary in colours, the bottles also come with caps and labels which are often different materials from the bottles. The aggregator is mostly responsible for de-labeling, de-capping, and bailing prior to the materials being sent to the pre-processors. Aggregators target a category of material, eg, PET, PP, paper or metal, etc.
They are responsible for converting the waste into a homogeneous mix; Pre-processors add value to recyclable materials before selling them to an off-taker for processing into finished products. Pre-processors focus on a single recyclable material due to the capital intensity of investment. Aggregators supply pre-processors based on pre-processor preference, as pre –processor. Pre-processing, depending on the focal material, includes further sorting, cleaning, crushing, grinding, pelletizing, ingot production, billet production, base oil production, etc.
Recycling processors convert recyclable waste materials into new products either of the same form as the parent material or other forms. The materials collected from the collector, aggregator, or pre-processor end up at the processors as feedstock and are converted to new materials.
They use second-hand (recycled) raw materials to produce/assemble new products to be placed on the market (for example specific types of plastics).